A microcontroller is a self-contained system with peripherals, memory and a processor that can be used as an embedded system. Unlike microprocessors that can be found in PCs, microcontrollers are designed to be used for embedded applications, so they are used in automatically controlled devices including power tools, toys, implantable medical devices, office machines, engine control systems, appliances, remote controls and other types of embedded systems.
There are two ways of using microcontrollers in a project, one is to use a microcontroller board, and another is to integrate a microcontroller on your circuit board. The simplest way for hobbyists to get started is to use a microcontroller board. The most famous microcontroller board is Arduino. It’s a hardware and software suite designed to make it easy to get started with programming microcontrollers. But you can also find other microcontroller boards. They usually have just the microcontroller chip and the necessary components to make it work.