PCB Surface Mount Components
Size limitations were a huge issue to address in the early 1980s in the emerging era of electronics and computer technology, because only through-hole components were used to implement the circuit, regardless of the complexity of the circuit. Mainly due to the simple assembly process associated with through-hole components.
Surface mount components completely flipped the electronics industry thanks to its incredible size reduction factor, making it the predecessor of through-hole technology. Integrated circuits, especially microcontrollers and microprocessors produced in DIP, QIL, etc., consumed large space comparing to the computing power. This problem is solved by the introduction of surface mount technology that reduces the size by ten times. The lack of effective cooling and power handling capabilities of earlier surface-mount components was also developed by the following years.
In the case of capacitors and resistors, surface mount components reduce the size and routing area required to connect them to the circuit. As the ratio of component size to the relative size of the circuit board has significantly increased, surface mount components have led the development of multilayer circuit boards. Discrete surface mount components play a significant role in reducing size. Due to the solder pads, the typical via resistance forms a few square millimeters of space, but the surface mount counterparts occupy only a small portion of the space because of the smaller footprint and can be mounted on the copper wire interconnecting the respective portions.
Due to their small size, small downgrades and identifying surface mount components can be very tedious. Since there is not enough space to mark the entire part number, surface markings on parts also require special codes. This is easily corrected by modern computerized assembly.