Resistors can be made of several different materials and methods. Here are a few types of resistors: lead arrangements, carbon composition, carbon film, carbon file, printed carbon resistor, metal film, thick and thin film, metal oxide film, foil resistor, wire wound, foil resistor, ammeter shunts and grid resistor. Different types have different features. Some are very accurate, some can withstand high temperatures, some can withstand high power, and some are cheap. Some are good for low noise applications, and some are good for high-power applications, for high-speed applications and for measurement circuits.
You don’t need to learn more all features of each resistor type if you need a standard circuit board. What matters you is about the resistance value and how much power it can take. If your schematic does not tell you the necessary power rating for the resistor, and you don’t know how to calculate it, then you may try a standard 1/4W resistor. If it fails after a short while, you can exchange it for a higher wattage rating.