What is Single Phase Power?
It is not easy for beginners to understand single phase power in terminology. That’s why we use a simple analogy to describe it. Think of single phase power like a bicycle where only one leg (phase) is pushing on one pedal rotating around a crankshaft axis (neutral). Mechanically, power is calculated as leg pressure times rotating speed. Electrically, power is calculated as voltage times current. Single phase power is a two wire alternating current power circuit. Most people use it every day because it’s the most common household power circuit and powers their lights, TV, etc. Typically there’s one power wire and one neutral wire and power flows between the power wire (through the load) and the neutral wire.
A single-phase power supply provides alternating current electrical power in a system in which all voltages vary in the same pattern. This sort of distribution is most common when the power load is primarily used for lighting and heating with only a few larger motors to power.
In the United States and some other countries, single-phase power supplies are often divided in half to generate split-phase electricity, powering lighting and household appliances. The standard frequencies for power systems in single-phase systems are usually 50 or 60 Hz.