Wire gauge is a measurement of a wire, either its diameter or cross-sectional area. The gauge of a wire determines how much current can flow through the wire, and the resistance of the wire as well as the weight per unit of length. Wire size, diameter, area, feet per pound, ohms per 1000ft, and current capacity are the necessary data when dealing with the wire gauge. Today, we will explain the two points.
Wire Size: Wire gauge ranges from AWG 4 to AWG 40 is the standard size in America. Here AWG 4 is very large in size, while a wire size of AWG 40 represents a very small size, and AWG stands for American Wire Gauge.
Diameter: Since wire of AWG 4 is the largest of all the wires, it has the largest diameter. Likewise, a wire size of AWG 40 has the smallest diameter. Smaller wires always have greater resistance than larger ones. This is because there is less room for current to flow through. Current is simply the flow of electrons. When a wire is smaller, the electrons have less room to go through the wire. With less room, they bounce and rub off each other easier. Both bouncing and rubbing can easily produce friction and resistance. In larger wires, there is more room. Therefore, the probability for electrons flowing bump and collide into each other is much smaller. Therefore, there is less friction and resistance. The diameter can be expressed in many ways, including in MILs, inches, or millimeters. 1 mil is equal to 0.001 in or 0.0254 mm.